Dictionary of Furs
A good Fur dictionary has long been needed, for many people are confused by Fur names and trade names, many of which are extremely misleading. The purpose of our copyrighted dictionary is to acquaint you with the true facts regarding Fur names, and to briefly cover the characteristics of leading Furs. The animals from which they are derived, and the part of the world from which they come.
Abruzzi lamb –a wild lamb of Italy with the most desirable characteristics of Wild Lamb pelts.
Abyssinian Monkey – Found in the Congo area of Abyssinia. Its hair is silky, long, white in color.
Adelaide Opossum – See Australian Ringtail Opossum. Not a true Opossum, but actually a Phalanger.
Afghan Lamb – A name which is applied to Persian Lamb which come from Afghanistan.
African Mole – Black, short Fur with silver-brownish cast. See Mole.
African Otter – See Arianha Otter.
African Water Vole – A Mouse-like animal from Africa. Member of the Vole family, sometimes wrongly called Giant Vole, Cameroon Muskrat, or Platypus.
Alaska Blue Fox-- See Blue Fox.
Alaska Fur Seal-- Only Seals which bear the stamp of the United States government are true Alaska Seals. See Fur Seal.
Alaska Marten-- See American Marten.
Alaska Mink-- A name applied to Mink from Alaska. Similar in characteristics to American Mink.
Alaska Muskrat-- Muskrats from Alaska, very silky.
Alaska Sable-- A misleading name for Skunk or dark Raccoon treated to resemble Sable.
Alpaca-- A kind of Llama, found in South America. Fur is fine, long and silky , and generally black.
Alpine Lamb-- Fur trade name for processed Lamb from the Mediterranean Area, formerly called Mandel Lamb. Hair is yellowish-white and about 3 inches long.
American Broadtail-- A misleading name for Broadtail-Dyed lamb. The Lincoln Lamb from South America is sheared close and dyed black, brown, or platinum to imitate Broadtail Lamb. American Broadtails are divided into three types: Jumbo, the heaviest and largest Lincoln Lambs with open, flat curl; Plushy, slightly smaller with more open pattern; and Super, smallest in size with the curls in a pattern of small ridges, and is regarded as the best type.
American Cross Fox-- A North American Red Fox with long, silky Fur ranging in color from a pale yellow to a dark silvery, and was always with a black cross across the mane. Ranch raised considered better.
American Lion-- Misleading name for Cougar.
American Marten-- Found in Alaska, Canada, and the U.S. Rich chocolate brown in color, somewhat lighter below with yellowish chest and throat; some black, coarse top hairs. The winter coat is deep, full and soft. Often incorrectly called Hudson Bay Sable.
American Mink--Name given to North American Mink, best Furs obtained from Eastern Canada. Wild Mink are light brown, Ranch Mink darker. See Mink.
American Muskrat--See Muskrat.
American Opossum --Found in the Central and Southern United States. Natural color is a mixture of black and white with some bluish gray mixed in. Fur is coarse and frizzy, is often dyed in various shades to imitate Stone marten, Skunk, and other Furs.
American Otter -- See otter.
American Panther -- Another name for American cougar or Puma. The Fur is seldom, if ever, used.
American Sable -- See American Marten
American Seal – a misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
American Wolf -- Sometimes a trade name for Coyote.
American Wombat -- A misleading name for domestic or foreign Lamb or Sheep pelts which have been sheared and dyed to imitate Australian Wombat.
Amur Coon-- Raccoon from Amur, Asia. See Chinese Raccoon.
Angora Goat-- Found in the Highlands and Central Asia Minor. Wool is long and curly, white in color.
Antelope-- Related to a Goat, abundant in Africa. Brown, short-haired Fur. Used but little in Fur trade, but when used, it is dyed to all colors.
Arabian Kidskins – Kidskins from Africa, often referred to as Hodeido kids.
Arctic Fox – See White Fox.
Arctic Seal –A misleading name for Rabbit which has been dyed and processed to imitate Seal.
Argentine Fox – A South American species of the Gray Fox, principally found in Argentina.
Arianha Otter – Often called Ariranha, African, or Brazilian Otter. Species is larger than the American variety and has a flatter Fur. Found in South America, best in Argentina. Color is medium brown.
Armour Coon – See Amur Coon.
Asia Fox – Found in the highlands of Asia. Fur is long, soft, and brown in color, tail is tipped with white. Also called Hill Fox, Steppe Fox, Stone Fox, and Corsak or Corsac.
Asiatic Mink – See Chinese and Nippon Mink.
Asiatic Raccoon – Chinese Raccoon from Amur.
Asmara Leopard –A leopard from the territory near Asmara in Africa. See Leopard.
Astrakan – a Sheep found in China and Russia. Has a coarse, loose curl, is used chiefly in coat linings. The same as Caracul, but coarser grade. See Caracul.
Australian Badger – See Koala.
Australian Bear – Another name for Koala, also known as the Australian Honey Bear. See Koala.
Australian Chinchilla – A misleading name for Australian Opossum.
Australian Coney – Misleading for Australian Rabbit.
Australian Fisher – A misleading name for Wallaby dyed to resemble Fisher.
Australian Fox – Red Fox of Australia, smaller in size than American, with coarser Fur and shorter nap.
Australian Opossum – Member of the Phalanger family, found in Australia. Fur is totally different from American Opossum, resembling wool more than Fur. Color varies with district of origin, from blue-gray to yellow with reddish tones. Often dyed in black and brown shades to imitate Beaver and other more costly Furs. Also known as Vulpine Phalanger.
Australian Rabbit—The finest Rabbit pelts come from Australia and New Zealand. They are processed and dyed to all colors, and sold under a variety of names, some extremely misleading. See Rabbit.
Australian Ringtail Opossum – Member of the Phalanger family from Australia. Has ringed tail and is smaller and darker in color than Australian Opossum. Short, close, wooly Fur, dark dray in color. Size varies from that of a Mouse to a Domestic Cat.
Australian Seal – Misleading name for Rabbit.
Azurea Fox – Misleading name for Blue-Dyed fox.
Baby—A word used preceding a Fur name to indicate that the pelts are small or of a dwarf species, and seldom has reference to age of the animal.
Baby Moire Seal – See Tropical Seal.
Baby Otter – A misleading name for Desman.
Baby Seal—the young of various species of Hair Seal from North Atlantic Labrador Area. Pelts are taken before Seals reach the age of four weeks. For at this age they are shed the white Fur that makes them desirable. Also called Whitecoats.
Badger – A member of the Weasel family, found in Asia, Europe, and North America. It has coarse thick, underwool of pale fawn or stone color, with long black and white hair on back and sides. Fur is darker on belly than back. Preferred pelts have silver-tipped guard hairs and white underwool. Asiatic Badgers similar to American, but are yellower and coarser. A clumsy Fur, used to trim sport coats.
Baffin Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Bagdad Lamb – Another name for Salt-Persian Lamb.
Baltic Black Fox – Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Baltic Brown Fox—Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Baltic Leopard – Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Baltic Lion – Misleading name for dyed Rabbit
Baltic Red Fox – Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Baltic Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Baltic Tiger—Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Baltic White Fox –Misleading name for White Rabbit.
Bamboo Rat – a rodent from China. It lives in bamboo groves in the provinces of Hankow and Hupfh. Coloring is silver gray with a smattering of brown, and resembles the Blue Fox in color.
Bandtailed Cat – A California name for Bassarisk.
Baranduki – an Asiatic and Russian Chipmunk, used mainly for trimmings by the Fur trade. Color is yellowish to light brown with vertical dark stripes. Other spellings are Baronduki, Burunduki, Barunduki.
Bassarisk – A short-haired member of the Raccoon family, found in the U.S. and Mexico. Fur is light brown on the tophair, blush gray on the underwool. Often called Ringtail because of the alternate black and white rings on its bushy tail. Pelts are dyed Sable and Mink shades and used for scarfs and trimmings. Also called Ringtail Cat, Ringtail Raccoon, Cacomistle, Cat Squirrel, Rock Sable, and others.
Bastard Chinchilla – See La Plata Chinchilla.
Baum Marten – Found in Europe and Asia. Has rich, deep, soft Fur with strong top-hair. Color ranges from pale brown to dark bluish-brown. The best Furs are from Norway and Russia, and are very durable. Darker pelts are kept natural, lighter ones dyed or blended to imitate Russian Sable. Often called Pine Marten.
Bay Lynx – Smaller than the true North American Lynx. Eastern Bay Lynx are brownish-red, while Southern and Western are somewhat yellow and spotted. Also known as Desert Cat, Steppe Cat, Lynx Cat, and Wild Cat.
Bay Seal – Name used for Spotted Hair Seal, also used as a misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Beach Marten—Another name for Stone Marten.
Bear—Various varieties are found in North America, Europe, and Asia. Hair is long and shaggy and is used but little in the Fur trade. See Bears listed under Grizzly, Polar, Black , and Brown.
Beaver—A large brown rodent found in the United States, Canada, and to some extent in Europe and Asia. Underwool is close and of bluish-brown hue with coarse, bright black or reddish-brown tophair. Overhairs are generally plucked out, leaving a soft silky underFur. The finest Furs come Canada and Labrador. See Sheared Beaver.
Beaver Lamb – Misleading name for Beaver-Dyed Lamb, which is either imported or domestic Lamb that has been dyed in imitation of Beaver.
Beaverette – Misleading name for Sheared-Beaver-Dyed Rabbit. Also called French Beaver.
Bedlamite Seal – See Hair Seal.
Belgian Beaver – Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Belgium Lynx – Misleading for black Manchurian Dog.
Belly Muskrat—The Fur from Muskrat belly, a lighter shade of brown than the back Fur, quite often referred to as a Silver Muskrat.
Bengal Tiger—See Tiger.
Bessarabian Lamb – Cross-Breed Persian Lamb from Bessarabia, often mixed with Romanian Lambs.
Bisam Mink – See Mink Muskrat.
Black Alaska Fox – A silver-black Fox found in Alaska. Also used as a misleading name for the pale variety of Red Fox which has been dyed black.
Black Bear – Widely distributed throughout North America with the best found in Canada. Fur is fine, dark brown underwool with bright, black tophairs. Wears very well, used mainly for trimmings.
Black Cat – See Domestic Cat.
Black Fox – See Silver Fox.
Black Hare – Misleading for Black-Dyed Rabbit
Black Lynx – Misleading name for both Black-Dyed Lynx and Black-Dyed Rabbit.
Black Marten – Misleading name for natural black Skunk.
Black Monkey – Found on West Coats of Africa. Hair is long and very black, and with no underwool. Pelt at base of hair is noticeable, therefore usually dyed.
Black Martin—Found on West Coast of Africa. Hair is long and very black, and with no underwool. Pelt at base of hair is noticeable, therefore usually dyed.
Black Muskrat – A variety of Muskrat found in Eastern Seaboard States, the finest coming from New Jersey, and called Jersey Rat. The back Fur is considerable darker than the usually Muskrat. See Muskrat.
Black Persian Lamb – See Persian Lamb.
Black Poiret Fox – A misleading name for Manchurian Dog, which has been dyed black.
Black Seal – A misleading name for Black-Dyed Rabbit.
Black Wolf – See Russian Wolf.
Blue Fox – Found in Alaska, Hudson Bay Territory, Archangel, Norway, and Greenland. Color is slate-blue to dark brownish blue, with some off-color silvers with rusty cast. Those from Archangel are particularly silky and of smoky-bluish color. Underhair is long and thick with tophair not as plentiful as in other species. Lighter shades are dyed smoke or celestial blue. Many are now ranched.
Blue Japanese Wolf—Misleading name for dyed Goat.
Blue White Fox—Misleading name for Blue-Dyed White Fox.
Bluerette—Misleading name for Blue-Dyed Rabbit.
Blueback Seal – The young of a type of Hair Seal, with powder-blue back with greenish cast. See Hair Seal.
Bokhara – The very finest of the Persian Lambs that come from Russia. See Persian Lamb.
Bombay Lamb – A Lamb from India. Somewhat similar to Krimmer Lamb and often used as a substitute for it.
Brazilian Coati – South American Raccoon. See Coati.
Brazilian Fox – A South American Fox found mostly in Brazil. Yellowish Fur with black marks throughout. Often called Pampas Fox.
Brazilian Otter – See Arianha Otter.
Broadtail— The premature, newborn, or very young of Persian Ewes. The pelt is nearly always black and because the curl has not developed it has a beautiful, silky, moiré effect. The best ones come from Russia, and of these the prematurely born Lambs are the finest.
Broadtail Persian – Lambs which are a few days older than Broadtail, and therefore show a long growth of hair but not to the length of Persian Lamb.
Brook Mink – See Mink Muskrat.
Brown Bear—Found in North America, Europe, and Asia. The best come from the Hudson Bay Territory, and are quite valuable. Color ranges from a light fawn to rich dark brown, and underwool is dark brown.
Brown Marten – See American Marten.
Brown Muskrat – The ordinary North American rat, often used for Seal, Mink, or Sable-Dyed Muskrat.
Brown Weasel – See Summer Ermine.
Buck Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Buckskin Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Buff Rat – An incorrect name for Buff-Dyed Muskrat.
Bush Cat – See Chinese Civert.
Bush Wallaby – A wallaby with short, close-lying hairs, resembling a brown Raccoon. See Wallaby.
Bush Weasel – See White Weasel.Butter Mole – Mole which has been dyed a butter shade.
Cacomistle – Also called Cocomixle. Both are Mexican names for the Bassarisk. See Bassarisk.
Calf-The young of the Domestic Cow, mainly the European Cow. Hair short and coarse, color varies. Often dyed to simulate Pony or Leopard.
California Mink – A misleading name for Mink-Dyed Bassarisk.
Cameroon Muskrat—An incorrect name for African Water Vole. See African Water Vole.
Canadian Lynx – An unusually good variety of Lynx with a pale, silvery-white belly. See Lynx.
Canadian Marten – A name applied to American Marten from Hudson Bay Region. See American Marten.
Canadian Muskrat—See Muskrat.
Canadian Otter – A name for Otter coming from Eastern Canada and of superior quality. See Otter.
Canadian Squirrel – Best come from Alberta. Grayish in color with reddish steak. They are smaller, have a lighter Fur, and are not as well colored as Russian Squirrels. See Squirrel.
Canadian Wolf – See North American Wolf.
Canary Marten – See Japanese Marten.
Cape Fox – Misleading name for South African Jackal.
Cape Seal – Sometimes used as a misleading name for Rabbit, other times used to refer to Fur Seals from the Cape of Good Hope. See Fur Seal.
Capeskin – Lamb pelts from Cape of Good Hope Africa.
Caracal – A Cat, slightly larger than a Fox, found in Asia and Africa. Reddish brown in color, ears black tipped.
Caracul – Lambs with flat, open wavy curl from China and Russia, which are named after Kara Kul, a town in Central Asia. Russian types are black, brown, and gray in natural state but dyed before using, and are sometimes called Russian Caracul. The Chinese types come from Lambs of two varieties, one from South of the Yangtze River, and one from the North, and the latter are much superior. The Chinese Caraculs are white, larger but lighter, silkier, and have a looser curl than the Russian. Also now ranched in the United States.
Caracul Paw – Skis from the paws and legs of Caracul.
Castorette – Misleading name for Beaver-Dyed Rabbit.
Cat – See Domestic Cat.
Cat Squirrel – Texas name for Bassarisk. See Bassarisk.
Catamount – See Cougar.
Chapchilla-- A misleading name for Chinchilla-Dyed White Rabbit.
Cheetah – Belongs to Cat family, but has some Dog characteristics. Found in Asia and Africa. Similar in size to Leopard. Light tan, brown spots and stripes.
Chekiang Lamb – From Chekiang. See Chinese Lamb.
China Bear—A misleading name for a Chinese Goat.
China Otter – The Asiatic variety. See Otter.
Chinchilla – A small full-Furred, medium-haired Rodent, larger than a Squirrel. It lives in the Andes Mountains of Bolivia, Peru, and Chile, and at altitudes of from 7,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level. Fur is soft, dense, lustrous, and almost an inch long. Color is a delicate blue-gray with mottled markings on the surface and dark blue underneath. Considered one of the most beautiful Furs, costly, and one of the most imitated.
Chinchilla-Dyed Coney – Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Chinchilla Rabbit – A variety of Rabbit resembling Chinchilla when guard hairs are plucked.
Chinchilla Rat – An inferior member of the Chinchilla family found in South America. Fur is coarse, flat, and dull brown.
Chinchilla Squirrel – Misleading name for Chinchilla-dyed Squirrel. Also called Chinola.
Chinchilette – Misleading name for White Rabbit that has been processed and dyed to imitate Chinchilla.
Chinchillona – A member of the Chinchilla family, but lives at lower altitudes, generally from 5,000 to 7,000 feet above seal level, and is smaller and less desirable in both color and Fur than Chinchilla. Fur is longer but weaker, poorer and yellower.
Chinchow – Misleading name for Chinese Dog.
Chinese Badger – Name applied to Badger found in China. See Badger.
Chinese Caracul – See Caracul.
Chinese Civet – Found in the Yangtze Valley of china. Fur is fairly heavy, quite silky. See Civel Cat.
Chinese Dogskin – A Dog from China. Hair is a dark brownish-black color, occasionally spotted. A number of different varieties exist, of which the Chinchow has the silkiest hair. The largest pelts are from Mongolia, next from Manchuria, and the smallest from Korea.
Chinese Ermine – See Manchurian Ermine.
Chinese Goat – See Mongolian Goat.
Chinese Kid – See Kidskin.
Chinese Lamb – Another name for Caracul from China, including both Lamb from Chekiang and China, including both Lamb from Chekiang and Northern Lamb. Pelt is naturally white with open wavy markings, and is dyed to a number of colors. See Caracul.
Chinese Leopard – See Leopard.
Chinese Lynx Cat – A native Lynx of China, smaller than the North American variety. Yellowish in color and with dark markings. See Lynx.
Chinese Marten – A member of the Weasel family found in China. They are yellowish-brown in color lighter than the Russian variety, of poorer quality than either the American or Russian Marten, and usually have to be dyed. Often called Chinese Sable.
Chinese Mink – A lesser grade of Mink from Central and Southern China and Japan, with pale yellow-ish brown Fur which is always dyed brown shades. Usually called Chinese or Shantung Weasel. See Mink.
Chinese Raccoon – A long haired Asiatic Raccoon found in Japan, China, Amur, and called the Raccoon Dog. Tail is busy, long and has long pendent hairs. Fur is long and soft, varies of great deal in color depending upon area, the prevailing tints being dusky-yellow and black.
Chinese Sable – Incorrect name. See Chinese Marten.
Chinese Tiger – See Tiger.
Chinese Weasel – Trade name for Chinese Mink. Not to be confused with Manchurian Ermine.
Chinola – Misleading name, Chinchilla-Dyed Squirrel.
Chipmunk – A member of the Squirrel family, found in Northern parts of America, Europe, and Asia. Fur is reddish-brown with three mottled stripes on back. American variety not used in the Fur trade. The Siberian variety is called the Baranduki.
Chipped Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Chubut Fox – A South American Fox from Chubut in Argentina. See Argentine Fox.
Civel Cat – The true Civet Cat is a member of the Cat family and not related to the Skunk as generally supposed. Found in Europe and Asia, best varieties come from China. Dark gray Fur with a greenish cast, set off by mottled black markings of irregular stripes and spots. Used mostly for trimmings.
Clipped Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Coast Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Coati – A member of the Raccoon family, found in Central and South America. Body and tail are longer than a Raccoon, tail is ringed, color is usually red or reddish-brown.
Cocoalette – Misleading name for Cocoa-Dyed Rabbit.
Colobus Monkey – A monkey found in West Africa. Hair is long and black. Generally used for trimming.
Coney – Also called Cony. A Fur trade name for Rabbit which is dyed in all colors, processed, and sold under a number of trade names, many of them very misleading. See Rabbit.
Coney Beaver – Misleading name for Beaver-Dyed Rabbit.
Coney Kit – Misleading name for Rabbit, usually used to refer to a small Rabbit.
Coney Leopard – A misleading name for Rabbit which has been marked or dyed to imitate Leopard.
Coney Mole – Misleading name for Mole-Dyed Rabbit.
Coney Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Coon – An abbreviated name for Raccoon. Also a name for a variety of Domestic Cat which has very long, fine silky Fur.
Copper Island Seal – See Fur Seal.
Corsac – Or Corsak. See Asia Fox.
Cotton Mink -- A Fur trade name given to a type of American Mink which has white underFur and brown tophair. See Mink.
Cougar – Member of the Cat family, found from British Columbia to Patagonia. Color is tawny-red above, lighter beneath, and does not have spots. Also called American Lion, Puma, Mountain Lion and Catamount. Fur is shallow and of inferior quality.
Coyote – See Prairie Wolf.
Cross Fox –See American Cross Fox.
Cross-Persian Lamb – Name applied to Lambs, not regarded as full-blooded Persian Lambs, however, there is not visible difference. See Persian Lamb.
Coypu – See Nutria.
Dahtung Lamb – Another name for Chinese Lamb.
Dalyak – A misleading name for Goat.
Desert Cat – Another name for Bay Lynx. See Bay Lynx.
Desert Lynx – See Lynx Cat.
Desman – Member of Mole family. An aquatic, small, mole-like animal found in Russia. Dark brown Fur on back, silvery on belly. Used natural or dyed brown, and primarily for trimmings.
Dimka – A domestic Cat of Russia. Shade is slate-gray to smoky-blue, and it is dyed to popular Fox shades. Also called Dimka Cat and Dimka Fox.
Dipped Marten – Misleading name for Black-Dyed Skunk.
Dog – Dog family. Varieties found throughout the world and with all types of hair and coloring. The Chinese variety is usually used in the Fur trade. See Chinese Dogskin.
Domestic Cat – Member of Cat family. Mostly produced in America and Europe. Colors are black, brown, blue and mixed, with blue and white the most valued. The hair has a tendency to shed. The black variety is often improperly called Genet. There is, however, a true Genet. See Genet.
Dormouse – A small, velvety Mouse resembling a small Squirrel. Found in Central Europe, Asia, and Africa and primarily used for trimmings. Also called Sieben Schlafer, Bilch, Lerot, and Louis.
Dubar – An Afghan work for Cross-Persian Lamb.
Duckbill -- See Platypus.
Dutch Mole – A large variety of Mole from Holland, heavy in Fur and strong in pelt. See Mole.
East Indian Leopard – A long-haired variety which must be sheared before use. Not the best. See Leopard.
Eastern Mink – Best grade of Eastern U.S. Mink.
Electric Beaver – Misleading for Beaver-Dyed Rabbit.
Electric Mole – Misleading name for Mole-Dyed Rabbit.
Electric Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit, Seal-Dyed Muskrat, or Seal-Dyed Nutria.
Ercomine – A misleading name for Chinese Kidskin dyed to imitate Ermine.
Ermiline – Misleading name for natural White Rabbit.
Ermine – Famous Weasel found in Northern Russia and Asia with best from Ishim Siberia. Fur is heavy with deep underwool and even guard hairs. In summer, animal is tawny with white belly; in winter, it is pure white with black-tipped tail – and it is to these winter white pelts that the name Ermine, rightfully belongs. 90% of the pelts are the white, and have a tendency to turn creamy in 4 or 5 seasons. Used natural, also dyed beige, platinum and other shades. Light, beautiful, expensive. See White Weasel, Summer Ermine – both often mistermed Ermine.
Erminette – Misleading for processed White Rabbit.
European Mink – a Mink found in Europe. Fur inferior to American Mink, and reddish-brown. See Mink.
European Otter – See Otter.
Far Eastern Mink – A misleading name for Mink-dyed Marmot. Also a name sometimes applied, to Japanese Mink. For the latter see Chinese Mink.
Feline Otter – See Otter.
Fisher – A member of the Weasel family, related to the Marten, and found in Canada. It has dark, shaded, deep underwool with fine, glossy tophair. Smallest pelts most valuable. Larger than the Marten; very durable, used in trimmings and muffs.
Fitch – A member of the Weasel family and a species of the Polecat. Found in Denmark, Holland, Germany and Russia. Under-Fur is fine and yellow, tophair is long, glossy and from white to black or brown in color. The Russian Fitch is smaller, more silky, and lighter in color.
Florida Mink – Misleading name for Min-Dyed Marmot.
Flying fox – Misleading name for Japanese Flying Squirrel dyed to imitate Fox.
Flying Squirrel – Found in North America, Asia, and Siberia, but largest quantities come from Japan. American species are gray or brownish above, pure white below. Asiatic variety are larger, have golden brown or silvery top Fur, gray underwool, and Fur is soft and silky.
Fox – Widely distributed, with colors, sizes and quality varying. Some are used natural, some are dyed. See American Cross Fox, Asia Fox, Brazilian Fox, Blue Fox, Gray Fox, Platinum Fox, Silver Fox, and White Fox.
Fox Hair – Misleading name for Fox-Dyed Rabbit.
Foxaline – Misleading name for Fox-Dyed Rabbit
French Beaver – Misleading name for Beaver-Dyed Rabbit or for Nutria.
French Chinchilla – Misleading name for Chinchilla-Dyed Rabbit.
French Coney – Misleading for natural White Rabbit.
French Leopard – A misleading name for Rabbit which has been dyed and marked to imitate Leopard.
French Lynx – Misleading name for Dyed Wolf or Dyed Wild Cat.
French Mole – A small Mole from France. Has especially flat and silky Fur. See Mole.
French Sable – Misleading name for Sable-Dyed Rabbit.
French Seal—Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
French Wolf – Misleading name for dyed Siberian Goat.
Fur Seal—A member of the Sea Bear family, and found in the Bering Sea Region, Cape Horn, South Seas, and Shetland Island Region. Northern Species include the Alaskan, Victorian, Copper Island, and Japanese Seals. Southern species include Shetland, Lobos Island, and Cape Seals. Variations in size of pelts, quality, and color are due to age, sex, and area found in. Generally the pelt is heavy, covered with thick, brown hair. This is dyed in various shades to make a beautiful and durable Fur.
Fur Wallaby – See Wallaby.
Galapin – Misleading name for sheared, dyed Rabbit.
Galland Squirrel – misleading name for Squirrel-Dyed Rabbit.
Galyak – A trade name for flat, somewhat characterless pelts of Lamb, Kid, Pony, Hair Seal, etc. These pelts are fragile and of the poorer grades. Also spelled Galliac and Golyak.
Gazelle – Member of the Antelope family, found in Africa. The Fur is delicate, streaked light brown of sandy color, and is dyed to imitate Mink, Sable, Marmot, and Leopard.
Geller Seal – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Genet – Member of the Cat family, found in Europe and North Africa. Similar to the Domestic Cat but small and white spotted, gray, or brown. Fur is coarse and the animal quite scarce. See Domestic Cat.
German Fitch—See Fitch.
Giant Vole – See African Water Vole.
Giraffe Kid – Misleading name, Giraffe-Dyed Goat.
Goat – Goat family. Widely distributed, but principal source of supply for Fur use is Asia. Hair is brittle, thick and coarse, 3-4 inches long, and not very durable. Mostly dyed to imitate Bear, Caracul, and kidskin. See Angora Goat, Mongolian Goat, and Thibet Goat.
Golden Muskrat – A Fur name for Flak Fur of Southern Muskrats with golden hue. See Muskrat.
Golden Rat – See Golden Muskrat.
Gray Fox – found in North and South America. It is medium-Furred, and smaller than the Red Fox Pelts from the Western States are light gray; from the Eastern and Southeastern, dark gray. Best come from New England. Under-Fur close and dark drab, top hairs coarse and yellowish gray.
Gray Kangaroo—See kangaroo.
Gray Marmot—See Marmot.
Gray Persian – An off-color Persian Lamb in which the hair is noticeably coarser and the luster not so great. Curls are irregular. See Persian Lamb.
Gray Wolf – A species of Timber Wolfe.
Grayback – The summer pelts of White Weasel.
Greenland Blue Fox – A Fur trade name used for Blue Fox from Greenland. See Blue Fox.
Greenland Seal—Seals from Greenland. See Hair Seal.
Grizzly Bear – Found in the western United States, Russia and Siberia. Hair is coarse, the pelt heavy, mostly yellowish with brown and dark brown. Less valuable than Brown Bear.
Guldars --- See Indian Lamb.
Guanaco – A member of the Llama family found in South America. It has exceedingly soft, wooly Fur of a light reddish fawn color with a very white flack. Only young animals used in Fur trade. Generally dyed to imitate Fox, very serviceable.
Guanaquito – A young Guanaco that has not yet become wooly. Natural state is reddish-brown.
Hair Fox – Misleading name for Fox-Dyed Rabbit.
Hair Laskin Seal – Misleading for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Hair Sable – Misleading name for Sable-Dyed Rabbit.
Hair Seal – Member of the Phocidae family of Earless Seals. Found from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and in all waters, although the best pelts come from Labrador, Greenland, Newfoundland, and White Sea of Russia. There are seventeen species in all. Hair is coarse and short with no under-Fur and is usually dyed brown for use in coats. Durability is good.
Half-Persian Lamb– See Cross Persian Lamb.
Hamster --- Member of the Mouse family, found in Eastern Asia and Europe. The Fur is flat and brownish yellow with some black markings. Used for linings or dyed to imitate Sable or Mink.
Hare—Hare family, found in Europe. Similar to the Rabbit but larger and with longer napped Fur. Fur is brittle, no durable, and the leather weak. The color varies from brown to gray, and is usually white on the belly, Russian Hare are heavily Furred; French Hare are generally white. Hares, like Rabbits, are plucked, sheared, and dyed to imitate costly Furs.
Harp Seal—A variety of Hair Seal. See Hair Seal.
Hill Fox – See Asia Fox.
Hudson Bay Sable – A misleading name used for American Marten. See American Marten.
Hudson Bay Seal – Misleading for Seal-Dyed Muskrat.
Hudsonia – Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Muskrat.
Hyaena – Hyaena family, found in Africa and Asia. About the size of a large dog, and Fur is generally of a light brown. Varieties are Striped Hyaena, Laughing Hyaena, Spotted Hyaena, and Brown Hyaena.
Hyrax – The popular name for Hyracoidea, a species
Iceland Fox--A misleading name for dyed Iceland lamb or other lamb in which the hair has been straightened and the pelt dyed to look like Fox.
Iceland Lamb--lamb from Iceland. Curls are line, long, silky, and colors are white, brown, black and mottled.
Imitation Ermine--An incorrect name for either White Rabbit or Squirrel Bellies used to imitate Ermine.
Indian Fox--Smaller than the usual Fox and found in the Himalaya Mountains. A very soft and fine Fur with color ranging from light yellowish brown to red. Quite similar to the Asia Fox.
Indian lamb--A lamb from the Delhi or Multan areas of India. Color is white, black or gray, Fur is of coarse texture. Varieties are known as Nazukchas, Guldars, Moires, and Baghnas. Generally dyed gray or brown, and used for coats and trimmings.
Indian Otter--See Otter.
Isabella Fox--A misleading name for Domestic Dog pelts on which the hair has been dyed and curled.
Itachi Weasel--Another name for Japanese Mink. Similar to Chinese Mink. See Chinese Mink.
Jackal--Member of the Dog family, found in parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. Smaller than a Wolf and has a bushy tail. Color is grayish-yellow, darker on back and sides, lighter below. South American variety has coarse, flat Fur, somewhat sparse. Algerian Jackal is smaller in size than South American, softer and deeper Furred. Turkish Jackal has fairly long Fur, coarse, and light in color. Used mostly for trimmings.
Jaguar-Member of the Cat family, found from Texas to Paraguay. Color is brownish-yellow or buff; marked with black spots or rings all over the body. It is larger than a leopard and less valuable for the hair is quite brittle. Used mostly for rugs.
Jap Fox--A misleading name for Tanuki, often called Japanese Raccoon. See Tartuki.
Jap Rabbit--A domestic Rabbit raised in Japan. Its colors are white, black, brown, and sparred.
Japanese Badger--A Japanese variety. See Badger.
Japanese Cross Fox--Misleading name for Tanuki or Japanese Raccoon. See Tanuki.
Japanese Fox--A Red Fox found in Japan on the Island of Yisso. See Red Fox.
Japanese Marten--Found throughout Northeastern Asia. Top-hair is coarse, color is a yellow resembling: Kolinsky. A dull Fur, and is generally dyed, tipped or blended to imitate Russian Sable. Also called Canary Marten.
Japanese Mink—Also called Chinese Mink. Asiatic Mink, Jap Mink, or Nippon Mink. See Chinese Mink.
Japanese Raccoon-See Tanuki.
Japanese Sable--Pelts of the Japanese Marten from Sakhalin Island. See Japanese Marten.
Japanese Seal – See Fur Seal.
Jersey Rat – Or jersey Muskrat. Fur name given Black Muskrat from the Central Atlantic States.
Kamchatka Fox--A species of Red Fox found on Kodiak Island, Kamchatka, and Sakhalin Island. Fur is rich in quality, medium red. Also used as a misleading name for Canadian Wolf dyed and called Kamchatka Fox.
Kangeroo--Native of Australia, of varied size often confused in the Fur trade with Wallaby species of the Kangeroo family. The short-napped large varieties are used for leather, only a few of the medium-napped Tasmanian types are suitable for Fur.
Karakul--A varied spelling of Caracul.
Karona--A misleading name for Domestic Cow.
Kid Caracul--A misleading name for Kidskin dyed and processed to imitate Caracul
Kid Cross--A Fur trade name for Kidskins which have been sewn into the shape of a cross.
Kid Skin--The Fur of a young Goat, usually from Asia Minor, China, Africa, or South America. The appearance is much like Caracul but the leather is inferior, being stiffer, heavier, and less supple. Quality varies according to locality, but the best pelts are from China, and are from black and gray to white with a flat wavy curl.
King Broadtail—Is misleading name for processed Mediterranean Lamb imitating Broadtail.
King Fox--A species of Fox found in Northern India and the Himalaya Mountains. Color is light gray and Fur is soft with brownish cross-like effect on the neck. Similar to Indian Fox.
Kit Coney--A Fur trade name for young Rabbit.
Kitt Fox--The smallest of the Foxes, found in the Americas, Asia and Russia. Upper back is yellowish-gray fading through reddish to white on the belly. The Fur becomes thick and gray in the winter. In America known as the Prairie Fox, Swift Fox, and Saskatchewan Fox; in Asia sometimes called Korsuk. Extensively used and dyed to imitate better Foxes.
Koala--A native Bear of Australia, often incorrectly called a Wombat, or Australian Badger by the Fur trade. Color is light gray or brown, hair is coarse and durable. Best pelts are silver colored. Also known as the Honey Bear.
Kolinsky--A member of the Weasel family, found in Siberia and China. Underwool is short and rather weak, but regular, and so is top-hair. Natural color varies from yellow to orange but is dyed brown to imitate Sable and other Furs of the Weasel family. Also called Red Sable, Siberian Mink, Tartar Sable.
Korava--A Russian name for Calf Skin.
Korsuk--See Kitt Fox.
Koweit Lamb--A Persian-type Lamb from Iran, cheaper than Shiraz, and better than Salzfelles. See Shiraz.
Krimmer--A gray, cross-bred species of Persian Lamb from the Black Sea Region of Russia. They are of a pale, bluish gray, and are similar to Persian but smaller in size with looser, more open curl.
Krimmer--Dyed Lamb-Any Lamb dyed to imitate Krimmer.
Kristovatki--A name applied to young White Fox from Russia. Generally they are about a year old at the time of the catch, and the Fur is then soft but nor deep, and has a gray to black coloring running from the neck to the rump, deeply ingrained right down to the skin. Usually dyed, used in trimmings.
Labrador Marten--See American Marten.
Labrador Mink--Fur trade name given the rich Mink Furs from Labrador. See Mink.
Labrador Seal--See Hair Seal.
Laccoon-- Misleading name for Mediterranean Seas that have been dyed to imitate Raccoon.
Lomb--The young of the Sheep family, found in, many countries and widely used for Fur purposes. See American Broadtail, Broadtail, Broadtail Persians, Caracul, Indian Lamb, Krimmer, Mouton, Persian, Shiraz, and Thibet.
Lapin--A misleading Fur name for Rabbit usually from Australia and New Zealand, which has been closely sheared and dyed, or bleached and stenciled with dyes to imitate other Furs.
La Plata Chinchilla--Member of the Chinchilla family but least desirable as it is smaller and has shorter, less beautiful Fur. Lives at lower altitudes from sea level to 5,000 feet. A true Chinchilla, not a cross although often called Bastard Chinchilla.
Laskin--A Fur trade name for processed pelts of both Domestic and Imported Lamb. Also called Laskin-Lamb.
Laskin Seal--Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Lasky--See Manchurian Ermine.
Lawresco Lamb--A Fur trade name for processed Sheep pelts, either imported or domestic.
Legcross--See Persian Paw.
Le Meuse Seal-- Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Lemming--A member of the Rat family, found in Northern Europe and North America. Fur is a soft dark brown to black mixed with yellowish hues on the back and fading into a yellowish white on the belly.
Lensky Squirrel--See Russian Squirrel.
Leopard--A member of the Cat family, found it; Asia and Africa, with the best coming from Somaliland. Hair fibers tend to shed. Color is mostly buff or pale fawn with black or dark brown rings or rosettes. Preferred pelts are light in color with a slightly bluish cast. Occasionally Black Leopards are found.
Leopard Cat—Misleading name for Ocelot.
Leopard Coney--Misleading name for Rabbit which has been dyed and stenciled to imitate Leopard.
Leopard Kid--Misleading name for Kid which has been dyed and stenciled to imitate Leopard.
Leopardine--A misleading name for Leopard-Dyed Kid or Leopard-Dyed Rabbit.
Lincoln Lamb--A small Lamb which originally came from England but is now extensively raised in Argentina. White in color, several varieties. They are sheared and dyed, and improperly called American Broadtail.
Linette--A misleading name for dyed Bassarisk.
Lion--A member of the Cat family, found in Africa and Asia. Color is usually yellowish brown or tawny. Male has a long mane and a tuft on end of tail. Fur is mainly used for rugs.
Little Spotted Skunk--A small variety of Skunk, found in the United States, with best pelts coming from Iowa. Fur is greenish-black with irregular white lyre shaped pattern. Often referred to as a Civet Cat but it is neither Civet nor Cat, it is a Polecat Weasel.
Little Striped Skunk--See Little Spotted Skunk.
Llama--A relative of the Camel, smaller and without hump, found in South America. Hair is long and wooly and similar to Alpaca but coarser. Color is usually white or spotted with brown or black. Dyed to imitate Fox and Wolf.
Lobos Island Seal--See Fur Seal.
Loutrine--A misleading name for Seal-Dyed Muskrat.
Lykkoon--A misleading name for Mediterranean Sheep dyed to imitate Raccoon.
Lynx--Cat family member found in America, Europe and Asia. Russia, Canada, and Alaska supply the finest pelts. Long silky hair and soft silky under-Fur permit best use for trimmings. North America lynx range in color from silvery to brownish gray with best pelts pale-gray with blue cast and white belly. The Lynx Cat is used more in Fur industry. See Lynx Cat.
Lynx Cat--A member of the Cat family which approaches the Lynx in appearance and the Wild Cat in habit, and therefore it is disputed as to which it is. The Fur trade usually considers it the best type of North American Wild Cat. See Wild Cat, Bay Lynx.
Macluse--Native name for South African Jackal sometimes called Cape Fox. See Jackal.
Manchurian Black Fox--Misleading name for Black Dyed Manchurian Dogskin.
Manchurian Dogskin--See Chinese Dogskin.
Manchurian Ermine--Also called Lasky Ermine and sometimes Chinese Ermine. This is the Russian Ermine species found in Manchuria and Siberia, with a bluish-yellow to orange-red color. Best come from Siberia.
Manchurian Fox--Misleading for Manchurian Dogskin.
Manchurian Poiret Fox--Misleading name for Brown Dyed or Poiret Dogskin.
Manchurian Wolf--Wolf species of China, similar to Canadian Timber Wolf. Also, the name is sometimes incorrectly used for Manchurian Dogskin.
Mandarin Lamb--See Thibet.
Mandel Lamb--Specially processed Sheep which come from Mediterranean area, often called Mediterranean Sheep. See Alpine Lamb.
Mandel Marmot--Misleading for Mandel-Dyed Marmot.
Manderian--Mandarin lamb. See Thibet.
Mand-o-Coon--Misleading for Raccoon-Dyed Sheep.
Marcoon--Misleading name for Raccoon-Dyed Marmot.
Mar-Konic--Also Mar-Konie. Misleading name for Marmot-Dyed Rabbit.
Marmink--Misleading name for Mink-Dyed Marmot.
Marmolin--Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Marmot--Rodent family, related to Squirrel. Found in Asia, Europe, and Americas. Quality and color of skins vary with season of year and locality. Colors from bluish-gray to yellowish-brown. Texture varies from harsh and brittle to fine and silky. Fall pelts best. Successfully dyed, fair wear, inexpensive.
Marmotine - Misleading name for Marmot - Dyed Rabbit.
Marten--A member of the Weasel family. See Baum Marten, Japanese, Stone, American Marten, Kolinsky. Skunk, also Marmot-Dyed Squirrel, are sometimes misleadingly called Marten.
Mediterranean Sheep--See Alpine Lamb.
Melbourne Opossum--See Australian Opossum.
Mendoza Beaver--Misleading name for sheared Rabbit dyed to resemble Beaver.
Merlushka--Fur name for a species of Russian Sheep with short curly hair, with a patchwork coloring of black and white or brown and white. The finest are similar to lowest grade Krimmers.
Meskin Beaver--Misleading name for Sheared Rabbit which is Beaver-dyed to imitate Beaver.
Meskin Ermine-Misleading name for White Rabbit.
Meskin Seal--Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Metis--French word and Russian term for a cross breed of Persian Lamb and Ukranian lambs of Russia.
Meuffion--See Mongolian Goat.
Mexican Coati-- See Bassarisk.
Middling Spot Seal--See Hair Seal.
Mindel-Or Mindel Marmots. Small Marmot pelts.
Mink--Member of Weasel family. Glossy Fur, underwool short, top hairs long and shiny. Widely distributed. Light to rich dark brown, white chin and often small patches of white on underbody. See: American Mink, Ranch Mink, Mutation, European, Russian, Cotton, Chinese, Mink Muskrat, Siberian and Far EasternMink.
Mink Rare Royal Listing:
|Rare Quality ~ |
|Royal Quality ~ |
|AEOLIAN||NATURAL TAUPE MINK||TAUPE|
|ARCTURUS||NATURAL LAVENDER BEIGE MINK||LAVENDER|
|ARGENTA||NATURAL GRAY MINK||SILVERBLUE|
|AUTUMN HAZE||NATURAL BROWN MINK||PASTEL|
|AZURENE||NATURAL BLUE-GRAY MINK||VIOLET|
|CERULEAN||NATURAL BLUE MINK||SAPPHIRE|
|DESERT GOLD||NATURAL LIGHT BROWN MINK||TOPAZE|
|DIADEM||NATURAL PALE BROWN MINK||FAWN|
|JASMINE||NATURAL WHITE MINK||WHITE|
|LUNARAINE||NATURAL DEMI-BUFF MINK||DEMI-BUFF|
|LUTETIA||NATURAL GUNMETAL MINK||GUNMETAL|
|MORNING LIGHT||NATURAL BLUE BEIGE MINK||HOPE|
|ROVALIA||NATURAL PALE ROASE MINK||PALE ROSE|
|TOURMALINE||NATURAL PALE BEIGE MINK||PEARL|
Mink Muskrat--Misleading name for natural Muskrat or Muskrat dyed to resemble Mink. Also called Northern Mink, River Mink, Superior Mink, Southern Mink, Bisam Mink, Brook Mink.
Minkony--Misleading name for Mink-Dyed Rabbit.
Moire Carocul -- Russian or Chinese water-marked Caracul.
Moires--See Indian Lamb.
Mole--Rodent-Mouse family. Found in Europe, Africa and America. Velvety Fur, taupe and blue shades. See African Mole, Dutch Mole, Scotch Mole.
Molin--Misleading name for sheared Rabbit which has been dyed to resemble Mole.
Moline--Misleading name for Mole-Dyed Rabbit.
Mongolian Fox--A species of Red Fox found in China.
Mongolian Goat--Often referred to as Chinese Goat. Underwool Soft and silky. When outer hair has been clipped and Fur processed, the trade name is usually Moufflon. Color is gray to light brown, dyes easily.
Mongolian Ground Squirrel--See Marmot.
Mongolian Lamb--A Chinese Sheep or Lamb. Fur short, wavy, loose curls, creamy white. See Caracul.
Mongolian Tiger--See Tiger.
Monkey--Best from Africa Gold Coast Region. Unusual long black hairs with no under-Fur. Dyed black for jackets and trimmings. Wears well, inexpensive.
Mouflon--See Mongolian Goat.
Mountain Cat--Misleading California name for Bassarisk. See Bassarisk.
Mountain Lion--See Cougar.
Mountain Sable--Misleading name for Sable-Dyed Japanese or Chinese Marten, and Dyed Ringtail Cat.
Mouton Lamb--Processed Sheepskin found in many countries, but its development has been primarily in the United States. Usually dyed brown, but gray and other shades are being developed. A popular, moderate-priced Lamb coat.
Muskrat--Rat family, widely distributed. Three times size ordinary Brown Rat. Fairly thick, even under-Fur with fairly strong, dark top hair. Black Rats from Atlantic States have full, heavy top-hair with uniform black coloring. U. S. Southern Rats are small in size, heavy in pelt, flatter-Furred with little underwool, and unsuitable for dyeing. U. S. Northern Rats have weaker leather but have silkier and heavier underwool. Muskrat is dyed in various colors, wears well, and is moderately priced. The name is sometimes misused on various dyed Rabbits.
Muskratine--Misleading name for a long-haired Rabbit dyed to imitate Seal.
Musquash--Old Indian name for Muskrat now misleadingly used on Seal-Dyed Muskrat.
Mutation Mink--Classification applies to breeds of Mink now being raised in the U. S. These Furs have rich tone qualities, and are known by various names such as Blufrost, Ebony Blue, Royal Pastel. Very lovely, very expensive. See Mink, Ranch Mink.
Natural Black Fox--See Silver Fox.
Nazukchas--See Indian Lamb.
Near Seal--Misleading trade term for European Rabbit dyed to imitate Seal.
New Madrid Raccoon--Considered one of the best types of coat Raccoon. The pelts are usually selected from around New Madrid, Missouri, and have white silvery sides and dark backs. See Raccoon.
New Zealand Seal--Misleading name for New Zealand Rabbit sheared and dyed to resemble Seal.
Newchwang--Incomplete name for Newchwang Chinese Dogskin. See Chinese Dogskin.
Newfoundland Seal--See Hair Seal.
Nippon Mink-Japanese Mink dyed to resemble American Mink. Sometimes referred to as Asiatic Mink. See Japanese Mink. Nippon Mink is also misleadingly used as trade term for Dyed Chinese Weasel.
North American Ermine--See White Weasel.
North American Lynx – See Lynx.
North American Wolf--Found in Northern United States, Canada, and Alaska, and has a finer, denser Fur than European or Asiatic varieties. Varies from light gray to dark bluish gray, brown and sometimes black. The Canadian large size, fuller-Furred pelts with bluish gray coloring and fine flowing top-hairs are the best. Other North American pelts are often dyed in various colors and shades. See Timber Wolf.
Northern Lamb--The best type of Chinese Lamb. See Caracul.
Northern Mink--This could be properly used to apply to Mink from Northern North America, however in the Fur trade it is misleadingly used to designate Muskrat dyed to resemble Mink. See Mink Muskrat.
Northern Muskrat--See Brown Muskrat.
Northern Seal--Misleading name for Rabbit sheared and dyed to resemble Seal.
Nu-Mink--Misleading name for Mink-Dyed Marmot.
Nu-Nutria--Misleading name for Dyed Japanese Rabbit.
Nutria--Name of Fur obtained from the Coypu member of the Rodent family. Found near streams and waterways of South America. Underwool dense, Fur durable, color from yellowish and light brown to velvety and occasionally almost black brown. Guard hairs are plucked out leaving a soft, silky nap. Fur is durable except backs which are poor quality. Because it resembles North American Beaver, it is sometimes misnamed South American Beaver.
Nutria Beaver--Misleading name for Nutria sheared to obtain two-tone effect of Sheared Beaver.
Nutria Seal--Misleading name for sheared Nutria dyed to resemble Seal.
Nutriette--Misleading name for Rabbit processed to imitate Nutria.
Ocelot--A Leopard-like Cat, found in Mexico and South America. It is of the nature of Leopard, attractively marked with stripes and oblong spots. Colors are yellowish or reddish-gray, also some fine Brazil bluish pelts, spots black-edged to brown. Used primarily for sport coats as markings are varied.
Opossum--Best known member of the Phalanger family. See American Opossum, Australian Opossum, and the Ringtailed Opossum.
Otter--Large, brown, water-loving member of Weasel family found the world over. Characteristics vary according to locality. South and North American pelts primarily used, the best from Maine, Canada, and Alaska. See River Otter, Sea Otter.
Ounce--A large, grayish-white Leopard-like Cat found in Thibet and Southern Siberia. Fur is long, soft, and irregularly spotted with black. Sometimes referred to as Snow Leopard.
Pahmi-Ferret Badger, Weasel family. Found mostly in China, some in India. The pelt is heavy, underFur yellow and silky, top hair grayish-brown. Used natural; better pelts are bleached and plucked. Less valuable pelts are dyed brown and used for trimmings. Also known as Chinese Marten.
Pampas Cat--Small Wild Cat found in Argentina and Patagonia. Yellowish gray with brownish stripes from back to flanks and dark bands on legs and short tail.
Pampas Fox--See Brazilian Fox.
Panther--Name often applied to fierce variety of Leopards, less often to Jaguar, and in America sometimes to Cougar. In the Fur trade, name is sometimes given to sheared American Wild Cat. See Wild Cat.
Panther Cat--See Cougar.
Pardine Lynx--Name applied to Lynx found in Southern Europe, especially Spain. See Lynx.
Patagonia Fox--Name applied to South American Fox, larger than Brazilian Fox or Pampas Fox, but similar in color though Fur is finer. See Brazilian Fox.
Patch Fox--See American Cross Fox.
Persian Broadtail--Sheep slightly older than Broadtail Persian, bur not as old as true Persian.
Persian Lamb--Sheep family. Best pelts come from Bokhara, Russia, and Afghanistan. Tightly curled, coarse-haired, usually black. Those Iron-gray are called Gray Persians. Black Persians often dyed to blacken skin and add lustre. Service, good. Price moderate to expensive.
Persian Paw--Misleading term for discarded pieces of Persian Lamb used for trimmings. Also sometimes called Legcross or Persian Legcross.
Perwitsky--A mottled Polecat member of the Weasel family, closely related to Fitch. Short nap, whitish stripes imbedded on brown or yellowish black background. Used natural for trimming and coats, also often dyed to make a cheap and fair substitute for Sable. Also called Tiger Fitch, Spotted Fitch.
Peschanick--Species of Suslik. See Suslik.
Phalanger--See Australian Ringtail Opossum. Pieced-Persian lamb-Articles and trimmings made of pieces and scraps of Persian Lamb, thus erroneously implying Persian Lamb Coats are made of whole pelts.
Pine Marten--A member of the Marten family closely resembling Russian Sable though inferior to the true Russian Sable. See Baum Marten.
Platina Fox--Platinum-type Fox from Norway.
Platinum Fox--A bright-grayish Fox from Norway and Canada. Breast and belly stripe are white, the back light gray. The name is also misleadingly used sometimes for Dyed Arctic or White Fox.
Platinum Mink--A variety of Mutation Ranch Mink.
Platypus--Also called Duckbill. A small aquatic mammal of Australia and Tasmania. Soft, light to blackish brown Fur, similar to Otter. Used for muffs, collars, cuffs, Otherwise of little importance.
Plucked Beaver--Fur name for natural or blended Beaver from which guard hairs have been removed.
Plucked Otter--Used in the Fur trade to apply to North American Otter with guard hairs pulled out.
Pointed Fox--Misleading name for Red Fox dyed black or Sitka color and into which Badger hairs are glued to imitate Silver Fox.
Polar Bear-- Or White Bear. Inhabits Arctic regions, and is almost as large as Alaska Brown Bear. Has long hair, though short for bear, with shaggy flanks ranging from white to yellowish color. Used sometimes as a trimming to substitute for White Fox.
Polar Seal--Misleading name for Seal-dyed Rabbit.
Polecat--Member of the Weasel family found in Europe, Asia and Americas. It is dark brownish above, blackish below, and has white markings. Species of Polecat are Skunk, Little Spotted Skunk, Fitch, Perwitsky.
Polo Seal--Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Pony-- Young wild Horses of Turkestan, Lower Volga Region, and Siberian Steppes. Short bristly hair more Furry than ordinary American Horse, ranging in color from mouse gray through tan to brown and black. Fur often treated to resemble a moire effect.
Possum--Abbreviation for Opossum.
Prairie Fox--See Kin Fox.
Prairie Weasel--Canadian and U. S. White Weasel, used mainly in natural color. Has long tail with black tip. Larger than Bush Weasel but Fur not as heavy and silky. Best come from Northwest Canada.
Prairie Wolf--Or Coyote. Western United States Wolf about half the size of the Timber Wolf, with coarse yellowish gray Fur clouded with black.
Processed Broadtail—See American Broadtail.
Queen Broadtail--Misleading name for processed Lamb. See American Broadtail.
Queen Fox--Misleading name, for Asia Fox dyed to resemble American Cross Fox.
Rabbit--Hare family. Furs from France, Germany, England, Australia, New Zealand, Asia. Fur is thick and fine with weak pelt. Colors from white, tan, and gray to mottled. When properly processed, attractive and serviceable for season or so. Extensively dyed and processed in various forms to imitate Sea, Chinchilla, Ermine, Muskrat, Mink, Fox and others. Coney and Lapin are common trade names, Coney particularly for those from Europe.
Raccoon--Raccoon family found in North America and Mexico, especially in U.S. Size and color varies to locality. Thick, pale brown under-Fur with long tophairs of a grizzly type, dark and silvery gray. Best have bluish tone, cheapest a yellowish or reddish brown. Good service, inexpensive. See New Madrid Raccoon.
Raccoon Dog--Known in Fur trade as Chinese Raccoon. See Chinese Raccoon.
Raccoon Fox--Arkansas name for Bassarisk.
Ranch Mink--Domestic Mink raised in North America. Three types at present: Yukons which are largest in size and have dark, more uniform coloring; Labradors, not as dark as Yukon, but hair more silky; Easterns, small-sized with long nap and color as dark as Yukons. See Mutation Mink, and Mink.
Rat--Abbreviation for Muskrat. See Muskrat.
Red Cat--Member of Cat family found in South Africa. The Fur is harsh and is a reddish hue in color.
Red Fox--Fox family. Found in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Color and size varies to locality. Long, soft under-Fur, with projecting hair plentiful and strong. Colors from brilliant dark reds of Alaska and Canada to yellowish tawny reds of Asia and Australia. Often dyed to imitate Black and Silver Fox.
Red River Seal--Misleading name used for pulled and dyed Muskrat, sheared and dyed Rabbit, pulled and dyed. Nutria, Seal-Dyed Rabbit, and Seal-Dyed Nutria.
Red Sable--Misleading name for Kolinsky.
Ringtail Cat--A Fur trade name for Bassarisk, particularly to the species having the big bushy dark and light circular ringed tail.
Ringtail Opossum--See Australian Ringtail Opossum.
Ringtail Raccoon--See Bassarisk.
River Mink--See Mink Muskrat.
River Otter--A member of the Weasel family, over 3 feet long. Best come from Northern Regions, especially Eastern Canada and Maine. Characteristics vary to locality. Very thick under-Fur, resembling Beaver. Colors light to dark brown with choice blue-brown pelts from Eastern Canada. Strong and durable. Sometimes used to imitate Seal.
River Pahmi--See Pahmi.
River Sable--Misleading name used for Bassarisk, or for natural Muskrat.
Rock Coney--See Hyrax.
Rock Opossum--A variety of Australian Opossum.
Rock Rabbit--See Hyrax.
Rock Sable--Misleading name for Sable-Dyed Bassarisk.
Rock Seal--See Tropical Seal.
Rock Wallaby--See Wallaby.
Roman Seal--Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Russian Black Marten--Misleading name for American Opossum dyed black.
Russian Brown Marten--Misleading name for American Opossum dyed brown.
Russian Ermine – See Ermine.
Russian Fitch – See Fitch.
Russian Lamb – Russian Caracul. See Caracul.
Russian Leopard – Misleading name for Rabbit dyed and marked to imitate Leopard.
Russian Lynx--Best Lynx of Europe. Pale brown with silky white belly. See Lynx. Also the name is misleading sometimes for Lynx-Dyed Rabbit.
Russian Marten-- Misleading name for American Opossum dyed a steel gray.
Russian Mink--Similar in characteristics to American Mink but hair is coarser. See Mink, American Mink.
Russian Muskrat--Rat family, found in Russia. Even under-Fur, silvery-blue shade with very little silky top-hair, and silvery-white sides. Sometimes called Desman. See Muskrat, see Desman.
Russian Otter--See Otter, River Otter. Sometimes it is used as a misleading name for dyed Muskrat.
Russian Panther--Sported, medium-haired Cat from Russia, often sheared. See Wild Cat.
Russian Pony--See Pony.
Russian Sable--See Sable.
Russian Skunk Marten--Misleading name for Skunk-Dyed American Opossum.
Russian Squirrel--Found in Soviet Russia, and the best of gray Squirrels. Used natural unless off color. Darker varieties used for coats, lighter for trimmings. Best type is Lenskys. See Squirrel.
Russian Stone Marten--See Stone Marten. Name also used as a misleading name for American Opossum.
Russian Taupe Fox--Misleading name for dyed Rabbit.
Russian Wolf--Also called Black Wolf. It is half the size of the North American Wolf, the coloring is darker and the hair coarser.
Sabeline--Misleading name for Sable-Dyed Squirrel.
Sable--Weasel family, so nearly related to Marten that it might be considered the aristocratic member. Found in Northern Europe and Asia, the best in Russian Siberia. Soft under-Fur, silky top hair, high lustre. Color varies from tawny to prized dark browns with choice pelts bluish dark brown. Russian Sable very luxurious, very expensive. Often imitated.
Sable Cat--Misleading name for Sable-Dyed Bassarisk.
Sable Fox--Misleading name for Sable-Dyed Red Fox.
Sable Hair--Misleading name for Sable-Dyed Rabbit. Salt Persian Lamb-Shiraz Lamb pelts dried in salt. Also called Salzfelle and Bagdad Lamb. All have sometimes been misleadingly called Persian Lamb.
Salzfelle--See Salt Persian Lamb.
Sand Fox – Species of Kitt Fox found in China
Sand Weasel--Misleading name for Suslik.
Saskatchewan Fox--American name for Russian Kilt Fox.
Scandinavian Squirrel -- Not as good quality as Russian Squirrel. Pelts are reddish, and are more tender, flatter, and looser-Furred than Russian. Because Squirrel takes dye easily, Norwegian and Swedish pelts are usually dyed for trimmings. See Squirrel.
Scotch Mole--Mole found in Scotland, large in size with heavy, short, velvety Fur, deep slate-blue in color. Inferior to Dutch Mole. See Mole.
Sea Bear--See Fur Seal.
Sea Cow--Misleading name for large Argentina Otter.
Sea Lion--A large Pacific Seal. The term has been misleadingly used on Tropical Seals, or Baby Moire.
Sea Otter--Member of Weasel family, 4 to 5 ft. long without tail. Rich, dense, silky Fur with softest, shortest of water hairs. Colors from pare, grayish brown to rich black, often sprinkled with silvery white tipped hairs. Almost unnoticeably harsher than River Otter. Very durable, very rare, very expensive.
Seal--See Fur Seal and Hair Seal.
Seal-Dyed Coney--Misleading name for Rabbit sheared and dyed to imitate Hudson Seal (Seal Dyed Muskrat).
Seal Musquash-- Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Muskrat.
Sealette--Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit, and also Seal-Dyed Nutria.
Sealine – Seal-Dyed Coney.
Serval Cat--A long-legged African Wild Cat having large untufted ears. Tawny to dark with widely separated black spots; with some pelts so dark, spots are almost undiscernable. Black bands on forelegs, and tail.
Shantefu Lamb--Fur name for Mongolian Chinese Lamb. See Caracul.
Shantung Weasel-- See Chinese Mink.
Sheared Beaver--Beaver with guard hairs plucked and under-Fur sheared some to give a Fur less bulky and with a distinct two-tone effect. Plucked Beaver will mat after wetting, sheared will not. See Beaver.
Shearling--A Sheep sheared for the first time. Often used to imitate Australian Opossum.
Shetland Seal--See Fur Seal.
Shiraz Lamb--A Persian-type Lamb from Iran which does not have the quality and lustre of true Persian Lamb. Appearance similar to Caracul. Of these Iran Sheep, Shiraz is the best, Koweit is not as good, yet Koweit is better than Salzfelle and Salt Persian Lamb.
Siberian Mink--Misleading for Kolinsky from Russia.
Siberian Raccoon--Misleading name for various imitations of Raccoon. I
Siberian Squirrel--See Squirrel.
Siberian Wolf--Similar in size to American Timber Wolf, but Fur usually paler and coarser.
Sidney Raccoon--Misleading name for dyed Wallaby.
Sieben Schlafer--See. Dormouse.
Silver Blue Muskrat--Blue-Dyed Muskrat to give the effect of Mutation Mink.
Silver Fox--Or Black Fox. A variety of Fox found in Northern America and Siberia. As wild animals are rare, pelts usually come from N. A. fox ranches. Close, fine under-Fur with top hairs black to silvery. Fur usually dark on neck and half way down length of pelt. Rarely does black extend three-quarters of length, and very rarely the whole length. The last are called Natural Black Foxes and bring enormous prices. The value of Silver Fox depends on regularity of markings.
Silver Muskrat--Natural belly Fur of the Southern Muskrat having a silvery tint. See Muskrat.
Silverskunk--Skunk pelts pointed with Badger hairs.
Silvertone Muskrat--Muskrat dyed a silver shade.
Sitka Fox--A misleading name for Sitka-Dyed Red Fox.
Sitka Silver Fox--A misleading name for Sitka-Dyed Red Fox which has been pointed to imitate Silver Fox.
Skunk--Although often erroneously called a Civet Cat, the Skunk is a member of the Polecat family found the world over on well-watered, dry, rolling land. Pelts vary to locality. Canadian is the best North American variety. Under-Fur full with fairly close, flowing top hair. Color is rich dark-smoke with natural white stripes. Sometimes dyed to hide stripes. Wears well, moderate prices. See Little Spotted Skunk.
Skunk Opossum--Misleading for Skunk-Dyed Opossum.
Skunk Raccoon--Misleading for Skunk-Dyed Raccoon.
Slink--A term applied to the skins of Baby Calf or Lamb stillborn, killed or dying soon after birth. Pelts are processed and dyed in various manner to imitate Broadtail Lamb, Krimmer, Caracul, Persian, and Shiraz Lamb.
Small Spot Seal--See Hair Seal.
Smoke Fox--Misleading name for Blue-Dyed White Fox.
Snow Flake Weasel—Misleading for Romanian Suslik.
Snow Leopard—An Asiatic Leopard-like Cat found in the Himalayas. Markings resemble spots rather than Leopard rosettes, has white belly, and resembles a Lynx more than a Leopard. See Ounce.
Solongoi—Russian name for Manchurian Ermine.
South American Beaver--Misleading for natural Nutria.
South American Fox--See Argentine Fox.
South American Leopard--Ocelot from South America South American Spotted Cat-Close relative to Ocelot.
Southern Mink--This term could properly be used to apply to Minks from Southern U.S., but it is instead used as a misleading name for Mink-Dyed Muskrat
Southern Muskrat-Southern U.S. Muskrat, is principally from Louisiana and Texas. See Muskrat..
Southern Seal--Misleading name for Seal-Dyed Rabbit.
Southern Top Muskrat--See Muskrat.
Spot Seal--A Hair Seal with spot markings.
Spotted Fitch--See Perwitsky.
Spotted Skunk--See Little Spotted Skunk.
Squirrel--The Squirrel family of the Rodent group. Found everywhere, but best Furs come from Siberia, Russia and Scandinavian countries. Back is an even, close Fur, reddish-brown with yellowish belly, to dark blue-gray with flat while belly. Characteristics and quality varies to locality. See Canadian Squirrel, Flying, Russian, and Scandinavian Squirrel.
Squirrel Bellies--A Fur trade name for belly Fur of Squirrels which is sewed together and dyed, usually to imitate Ermine.
Squirrel Sable--Misleading for Sable-Dyed Squirrel.
Squirrelette--Misleading for Squirrel-Dyed Rabbit.
Squirreline--Misleading for Squirrel-Dyed Rabbit.
Steppe Cat--See Bay Lynx.
Steppe Fox-See Asia Fox.
Stoats--Fur trade name for European Ermine particularly in the summer coloring. Also sometimes applied to American White and Brown Weasels.
Stone Fox--See Asia Fox.
Stone Marten--Found throughout Europe, Russia, and Central Asia. The Fur is coarser than Baum Marten, underwool is ashy white with long outer hairs of dark brown ripped with black. Pelts from Central Asia are larger than European variety and have pearl gray under-Fur. Also called Beach Marten.
Striped Lapin--Rabbit dyed to resemble Summer Ermine. Often misleadingly referred to as Summer Ermine Lapin. See Lapin.
Summer Ermine--This is the trade name for Brown Weasel found in North America. It is of same family as White Weasel but nor the same animal. It is a brown colored Weasel and not a White Weasel turned brown in summer. Best pelts come from New England States.
Sun Ray Mole--A name for dyed Mole. See Mole.
Superior Mink--Misleading for Mink-Dyed Muskrat.
Suslik--A member of the Marmot family, found in Russia and Romania, and parts of America. Color is tawny gray, back mottled brown and yellow-gray, and belly is yellow. Short haired and lower grade Fur.
Swamp Wallaby--Dark brown Wallaby often used to imitate Fitch.
Swift Fox--American name for Kitt Fox.
Sydney Opossum--See Australian Opossum.
Taguan--A large, East Indian Flying Squirrel. See Flying Squirrel.
Taker-Afghan name for Broadtail.
Tamar--A species of Wallaby. See Wallaby.
Tanuki--A member of the Raccoon family, found in Japan and Northeast Asia. Resembles the Raccoon in appearance and is often called the Japanese Raccoon. Fur is long, loose, and very silky.
Tarbagam--A. member of the Marmot family, found in Mongolia and Altai Mountain Region. A large Marmot with heavy coarse Fur. See Marmot.
Tartar Sable--A name for Kolinsky. See Kolinsky .
Tasmanian Opossum--See Australian Opossum.
Texas Civet Cat--The Texas name for Bassarisk.
Thibet--A Sheep from Northern China, particularly Tibet. Often referred to as Northern Lamb or Mandarin Lamb and is considered the best Lamb coming from China. Color is white, hair runs 3 to 4 inches in length, and is soft, silky, and so curly that it has to be straightened 'before it can be used. Moisture brings back the curl. .
Thibetine--A White Sheep from Chekiang, Chin. This is somewhat similar to Thibet, but the wool is straighter, is stronger, and not as long or as silky.
Thibet Goat--A member of the Goat family, found in Tibet. Has fine, soft wool· and is used principally to make Cashmere Shawls.
Tiger--A member of the Cat family, found in India, Turkestan, China, Mongolia, and East Indies. The Bengal type has short Fur of dark orange-brown with black stripes. Others are of same color but hair is longer. Those from China and Mongolia are larger, softer, and of a more orange-brown, with white flanks, and are marked with black stripes.
Tiger Fitch--See Perwitsky.
Timber Wolf--The large sized species of the Wolf family, about twice the size of Prairie Wolf and with hair half again as long. The Artic White Timber Wolf is more prized than the Blue or Gray Timbers from Canada. See North American Wolf.
Tipped Skunk--Fur name for Skunk which has been dyed blue-black to hide the natural lighter skin color.
Triebel--An inferior grade of Caracul. See Caracul.
Tropical Seal--Misleading name for a Hair Seal found principally off coasts of Peru and Chile. Since the animal is not tropical, the names Baby Moire Seal and Rock Seal are being adopted. The better moire marked the pelts are, the more valuable.
Twin Beaver--A misleading name for Rabbit which has been dyed in alternate white and brown stripes.
Ukrainer Lamb-A member of the Sheep family of Ukrainia. Similar to Persian Lamb but curls are larger and more open, and lustre is less pronounced.
Vicafox--A misleading name for Guanaquito which has been dyed to imitate Fox.
Victoria Opossum--See Australian Opossum.
Victorian Seal--See Fur Seal.
Vicuna--A member of the Llama family, found in the upper plateaus of Peru and Bolivia. Looks like a long-necked Sheep, wool is very soft and light, color is of a pale orange-brown. The name is often incorrectly used by the Fur trade for Guanaco or Guanaquito.
Virginia Fox--A Gray Fox from Virginia.
Viscacha--A South American relative of the Chinchilla. Larger than a Chinchilla, tail is bushy and tufted, hair is long and bristly. Color is mottled gray on the back, yellowish-white on the belly. Often dyed to imitate Muskrat.
Visonette--Misleading name for Mink-Dyed Rabbit.
Vulpine Phalanger--See Australian Opossum.
Wallaby--A relative of the Kangeroo family, native of Australia. Similar to Kangeroo but smaller in size and Fur more silky. Colors are brown and gray with shades of both. General varieties are: Fur Wallaby, a better grade with fine, soft Fur running from dark to reddish gray; and Rock or Scrub Wallaby - which is a poorer grade, flatter Fur that is gray colored with a dark streak in center of back.
Wallaroo--A member of Australian Kangeroo family. Colors vary from black in males to gray in females.
Wallarine--A misleading name for Hyrax.
Water Mink--A misleading name for Muskrat.
Weasel- The Weasel family includes Marten, Mink,
Fisher, Sable, Ermine, Kolinsky, White Weasel, Brown Weasel, and numerous others found in all parts of the world. Sizes, colors, and quality varies with species. See other classifications for descriptions.
White Bear--Another name for Polar Bear.
White Coat Seal--A baby Seal of Hair Seal species.
White Fox--A member of the Fox family, found in North America, Siberia and Asia. Generally small in size, and Fur is not very durable. The American variety is silky and creamy in color, while the Siberian variety is more wooly and whiter. Those from China and Central Asia are poorer and more yellowish. The under-Fur is usually of bluish-gray tone, but the top-hair is usually deep enough to hide any variations, especially in winter. Also called Arctic Fox.
White Weasel--A member of the Weasel family, found in North America, and sometimes called North American Ermine. Similar to Russian Ermine but under-Fur not as heavy, guard hairs nor as long, nor texture as silky. Some white and many dyed coats are made. Also called Bush Weasel when Fur is stained and of lesser quality. See Summer Ermine.
Wild Cat--There are many species of this member of the Cat family, found in Europe, Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Related to the Lynx, it ranges in color from chocolate dark to light brown, many marked with definite stripes or spots, and has long-haired Fur. Good pelts come from Dakota, Minnesota, Wyoming, etc. Used for jackets, trimmings. The Fur trade often calls the best species the Lynx Cat.
Wolf--A large, long-Furred member of the Dog family, found in North and South America, Europe and Asia. See Black Wolf, Canadian Wolf, Timber Wolf, Siberian Wolf, and Prairie Wolf.
Wolf--Misleading name for Manchurian Dogskin.
Wolverine--A long-haired member of the Weasel family, found in North America, Europe and Asia. Under-Fur is full and thick with strong, bright top hair. Dark chocolate brown to dark brown, several shades on each pelt, the center a dark oval saddle edged with a pale tone merging to darker tone toward the flanks. The darkest, least coarse pelts are most expensive. Canadian and Alaska pelts darkest, Siberian brighter with softer leather, silkier hair. Durable, inexpensive.
Wombat-- The Wombat family, resembling a small bear, is found in Tasmania and Australia, and has no Fur value. Also called Australian Badger. In the Fur trade, the name Wombat is erroneously used for Koala.
Wombat Lamb--Misleading name for young sheared Lamb.
Wool Seal--An incorrect name for the Baby Seal.
Yapak--A member of the Opossum family, found in South America. Often called the Water Opossum. Color is gray with sooty black bands running across the body. Not widely used for Fur.
Zorrino--A name for a South American Skunk that is lighter in color and with better Fur than the American variety. Fur wears well, and is used mainly for jackets and trimmings.
- Fur Appraisal Service
- Fur Cleaning and Conditioning
- Fur Cold Storage
- How to Care for Furs
- Fur Bearing Animals
- Dictionary of Furs
- History of Sir Charles
- Durability of Furs
- The Care of Skins
- Avoid Friction & Strains
- Shedding & Crocking
- The Fading of Colors
- The Storage of Furs
- The Servicing of Furs
- How to Select Furs
- Trade Commission Rulings